The crops of beans and corn are traditional in family farming of the Center-South region of Paraná, contributing to the formation of the rent on the properties through the sale of grain and meat processing and dairy products.

The Project Grain – South Central of Beans and Corn began 25 years ago, in the 1988-1989 crop, and it covers the administrative regions of the Institute EMATER/SEAB of Guarapuava, Irati, Ponta Grossa, União da Vitória, Curitiba, Ivaiporã and Santo Antônio da Platina. A total of 61 municipalities that have approximately 120.000 farmers, from which 97.000 are family farmers. Although started two and a half decades ago, in the 1999-2000 crop there was a strengthening of the proposal in the format that remains until today, and under the name South Central Project of Beans and Corn. Project that develops within a context where, around 54.000 producers grow beans, in a total area of 330,000 hectares, and more than 78.000 plant corn, in area of 466.000 hectares, demonstrating the importance of these cultures to this audience, mostly priority of Official Rural Extension Service.

 

The project addresses the professionalization of family farmers, in crops of beans and corn, in a vision of development, where, through increased productivity, production and income it is possible to generate savings for the introduction of other sustainable activities in the properties. However, keeping bean and corn crops in the system, the focus of sustainable production deals with the use of agricultural production practices involving the issues of proper management of soil in strengthening actions for the use of tillage with quality, security of the farmer, concern for the environment and the production of safe food.

As action strategies, the project develops the articulation with partnerships, the involvement of the administrative regions of the SEAB-PR System, installation of demonstration units (reference units) with 1.0 hectare areas, the technicians training, work with groups of farmers, the discussion/ results of PFU (Productive Family Units). Formed by f 20 to 25 people, such PFUs have common interests and problems relating to the use of individual and group methodologies, techniques and practices in the various phases of the crop development and socialization of the results through documents provided and prepared annually and, even, group events and dissemination.

The results of the harvest 2014/2015 corresponded to medium productivities, in the area mentioned above, of 2.585 kg/hectare in crops of beans and about 9.318 kg/hectare in corn crops.

 

 

A - General information

 

START: 07/1999* (in progress) - *Observation: Date for project with its current format

EXECUTING ENTITY: EMATER - Office of technical assistance and rural extension - institution linked to the Ministry of agriculture and supply of Paraná (SEAB)

PARTNERS: There are 03 direct partners for the development of the project namely:

1. IAPAR, institutional partner, participates together, providing basic seeds of beans for deployment of demonstration units. Collaborates with instructors to train technicians and farmers and technical assistance to the project;

2. EMBRAPA, institutional partner, participates together, providing basic seeds of beans for deployment of demonstration units. Collaborates with instructors to train technicians and farmers and technical assistance to the project;

3. SYNGENTA, institutional partner, participates with the supply of inputs, especially corn seeds for the establishment of Demonstration Units. It also provides the resources for training of technicians and farmers, group events, in addition to hiring an engineer for project support

There are still several employees and supporters who work directly or indirectly as: Earth Foundation (Foundation of support for Rural Development), municipal administrations of the Center-South region of Paraná, MDA (Ministry of agrarian development), FEBRAPDP (Brazilian Federation of Tillage and irrigation), Forquímica, Foundation ABC (ABC Agricultural Research and Development Foundation), and IAP (Environmental Institute of Paraná).

PRESENTED BY: Germano do Rosario Ferreira Kusdra

RESOURCES: Own and third parties

VALUE RANGE: Above US$ 25.000

CATEGORY: Projects

MAIN THEMATIC AREA: Agriculture

KEYWORDS: Family farming, partnership, beans, corn, sustainable production, income

TARGET AUDIENCE: Family farmers that make up the rural production units, organized in groups of neighborhood or community associations, Farmers cooperatives and technicians of private and public sector

LOCATION: Rural area

GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE: Microregional

MUNICIPALITIES OF MICROREGION: Municipalities of the harvest 2014/2015

Region of Curitiba: Agudos do Sul, Araucária, Campo Magro, Campo do Tenente, Lapa, Rio Negro

Region of Guarapuava: Candói, Cantagalo, Foz do Jordão, Guarapuava, Goioxim, Pinhão, Prudentópolis and Reserva do Iguaçu

Region of Irati: Fernandes Pinheiro, Guamiranga, Imbituva, Irati, Mallet, Rebouças and Teixeira Soares

Region of Ivaiporã: Cândido de Abreu, Manoel Ribas

Region of Ponta Grossa: Arapoti, Castro, Imbaú, Ipiranga, Ivaí, Jaguariaíva, Ortigueira, Palmeira, Ponta Grossa, Reserva, São João do Triunfo, Tibagi, and Ventania

Region of Vitória: Antônio Olinto, Bituruna, Cruz Machado, Paula Freitas, Paulo Frontin, São Mateus do Sul and União da Vitória

SPECIFIC AREA OF DEPLOYMENT: Microregions of Curitiba, Guarapuava,Irati, Ivaiporã, Ponta Grossa and União da Vitória

 

 

B - Description of practice

 

1- BACKGROUND

The cultivation of beans and corn is considered traditional in family farming of the Center-South region of Paraná. The region has 96,616 farmers, 78,720 work in the cultivation of corn and 54,120 plant bean, being responsible for important portion of the income of rural properties.

The average area of cultivation of family farmers in the Center-South region of Paraná was around 20 hectares, of which, 4.7 hectares exploited with beans and 6.2 acres with corn in the harvest 1999/2000, a situation that persists to the present day

Despite the significant amount of producers, and also, expressive area, the regional bean and corn yields were low. In the year 1999, start of the project, the regional average productivity from bean was 1,087 kg/ha, and corn 3,779 kg/ha, both lower than the average productivity of Paraná. This low productivity was related to improper use of technology, such as: lack of adequate fertilization and soil correction, use of low potential seeds, inadequate management of invasive plants, pests and diseases.

 

2- GENERAL OBJECTIVE

Professionalize family farmers in the cultivation of beans and corn, in a vision of development in which, through increased productivity, production and income, it is possible to generate savings for the introduction of other activities also, on property, however, keeping beans and corn crops in the system

Specific objectives –2014/2015* Crop

• Get average productivity in Demonstration Units of Beans, of more than 2,400 kg/ha, based on a minimum technology, adequate to the predominant system;

• Get average productivity in Demonstration Units of Corn, of more than 8.500 kg/ha, based on a minimum technology, adequate to the predominant system;

• Get average productivity exceeding 2.000 kg/ha in the culture of bean, and 7.000 kg/ha, in the culture of corn, for participants of the discussion /results groups;

• Train 88 producers employees, responsible for the demonstration units and 1,700 producers participants of the results groups in bean culture;

• Train 77 producers employees, responsible for the demonstration units and 1.500 producers participants of the results groups in corn culture, with focus on technological, economic and environmental issues.

Observation: * The specific objectives vary in each crop according to the progress of the project.

 

3 - SOLUTION ADOPTED

To the achievement of the proposed objectives, the following alternatives were adopted:

• Strengthening partnerships and collaboration with developers/supporters;

• Articulation with technicians through meetings and visits in order to further develop the proposal and the mutual commitment;

• Promotion of annual crop evaluation meetings for discussion and understanding of the proposal of the next harvest;

• Establishment of commitments through positioning of the Institute EMATER, partners, collaborators and technicians involved (public and private);

• Trainings/updates/annual recycles with technicians on beans and corn, to handle production technology, recognition and management of pests, diseases and weeds, plant management, soil fertility, tillage, market and other content demanded by technicians.

• Knowledge exchange between technicians;

• Bring together IAPAR, EMBRAPA, Universities and other public and private institutions, seeking the proposal of alternatives of income for family agriculture, technical improvement and knowledge Exchange;

• Selection of farmers collaborators, according to pre-established criteria (example: responsiveness, availability, interest, availability of inputs and equipment);

• Implementation of Demonstration Units of beans and corn, with an area of 1.0 ha each focusing on the use of zero tillage, based on the proper management of soil cover;

• Organization of groups with 20 to 25 participating producers, called result groups, that participate directly in activities deployed in demonstration units where group activities, technical visits and dissemination of technologies are carried out;

• Participation of farmers in various capacity-building processes aimed at their professionalization, as well as the socialization of information during the course of the crop;

• Group events among the farmers of the municipalities (technical and practical meetings, field days and courses);

• Dissemination of the results and activities through print and digital materials, journals, institutional news and in local, regional and State newspapers.

 

4 - RESULTS ACHIEVED

In 12 years of project, (1999 to 2010 - 61 municipalities) extremely significant increments in productivity of crops of beans and corn in the municipalities of the scope of the project were seen, reaching 72% and 122% respectively (IPARDES-BDEweb (11/9/2011 research)

Technologies developed in the various sectors of the production process were decisive for this increase, but increases in productivity are evident, too, on family farming, where the actions of this project were fundamental, with the participation of the rural extension with several partners and collaborators acting in the process.

Historical results raised in the area covered by the project show the evolution of the bean and corn crops, since the current format of implementation described (1999/2000 to 2014/2015):

  • Evolution of productivity of crops of beans 1999 to 2015 (kg/ha)

a) Brazil - 719,0 kg/ha to 1.050,0 kg/ha;

b) Paraná - 897,0 kg/ha to 1.775,0 kg/ha;

c) South Centre Project - 1.087,0 kg/ha to 2.585,0 kg/ha.

  • Evolution of productivity of crops of corn 1999 to 2015 (kg/ha)

a) Brazil - 2.480,0 kg/ha to 5.382,0 kg/ha;

b) Paraná - 2.638,0 kg/ha to 6.457,0 kg/ha;

c) South Centre Project - 6.230,0 kg/ha to 9.318,0 kg/ha.

  • Gross margin of the cultures in the South Centre Project (R$/ha)-per crop 2010 to 2015

a) Average beans = R$ 1.238,43 to R$ 3.051,27;

b) Maximum beans = R$ 2.405,70 to R$ 6.509,74;

c) Average corn = R$ 684,98 to R$ 1.285,63;

d) Maximum corn = R$ 1.690,00 to R$ 3.110,74.

Observation: Gross margin = Production revenue (sale price)-variable cost (Expense)

  • Actions taken - crop 2014/2015

a) Meetings =82 meetings carried out with the participation of 1,472 producers;

b) Field days =57 field days with the participation of 3,191 producers;

c) Field week =01 field week with the participation of 1,431 producers;

d) Encounter = 12 encounters with the participation of 2,518 producers;

e) Workshops =01 workshop with the participation of 16 producers; and

f) Excursions =91 excursions with the participation of 2,492 producers.

 

5 - RESOURCES NEEDED

– Team

At least 01 project coordinator, from the area of agricultural sciences, responsible for monitoring, support the team (technicians), institutional articulation with partners and collaborators and control of activities and results, in a macro action.

At least 01 agricultural sciences technician, middle-level or higher education, for each municipality with a didactic unit installation (demo unit-DU), for follow-up of this unit and the group of producers (result group), institutional articulation and organization of group activities, and a collaborator producer per DUs.

– Infrastructure

At the municipal units (office), of the headquarters of the municipalities included, with didactic unit, containing machinery, equipment, telephone, internet access, GPS, stationery and vehicle.

– Inputs

Financial resources for maintenance of office and vehicle, costing responsible technicians, inputs to support installation of DUs, as seeds, agrochemicals, fertilizers, financing of events, and payment of graphic material (brochures, banners, printing of reports).

– Funding of Demonstration Units

The disbursement of family farmers who have deployed bean demonstration units ranged from R$ 1.440,00 to R$ 3.241,00, with an average value of R$ 2.269,00.

As for the demonstration units of corn, the variation was from R$ 1.388,00 to R$ 3.271,00, with an average value of R$ 2.174,00. The main costs are related to the purchase of inputs.

 

 

6 - TRANSFER

The project's basic strategy of action is the installation of demo units-DUs (reference units). As already described, the methodology for replication of technologies in the properties of the groups of participants in the process develops through meetings, visits, municipal, inter-municipal or regional field days and excursions.

The project was quoted as a reference in technical assistance for the culture of beans, at the Sectoral Chamber of Bean Production Chain, from the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) having been also released in various channels of communication such as newspapers and magazines.

The transfer process has occurred annually, according to information contained in the item "Achievements" of this compendium. In 1999/2000, the activities were carried out in 28 municipalities, through 40 demonstration units of beans and 22 demonstration units of corn. In the 2014/2015 harvest, the activity occurred in 43 municipalities, with 88 units of beans and 77 units of corn.

 

7 - LESSONS LEARNED

From the project developed, the importance of partnerships, factor that allows the capture of financial resources, inputs and technical qualification of executors and target audience is worth mentioning. From the establishment of Teaching Units (TUs) with 1.0 hectare areas, are obtained the potential projection of the crop by farmers, regarding actionable results and, therefore, that can be extrapolated to any area size.

Makes reference to using consolidated and appropriate technologies to the public and focus and encourages its use. The new technologies that come firsthand to the public offer the opportunity of knowledge, training and supply of methodologies previously of exclusive use of large producers. 

With broadcast events, it is allowed the socialization of the results and the measurement of the evolution of earnings in the results of the proposal.

As possible obstacles to the initiative, it is recommended the need for a qualified technical body and with sufficient number of employees for the purpose of technical assistance, as well as the need for a judicious selection of collaborators producers in whose properties demonstration units shall be installed. All this features the necessary financial availability for the execution of the various phases of the proposal.

 

8 - ORIGINALITY OF THE PRACTICE

This project uses already known and widely consolidated and used systematics, such as demonstration units and the adoption of group methods for the transfer of knowledge and technology. However, there is no knowledge to date that there is in the country, similar initiative underway concerning the production of beans and corn.

Visitation between the months of November and December, from Monday to Friday, from 9 to 15 hours, with up to 10 visitors.

 

 

 

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